Preface
GrecoRoman
middleages
modernworld
prior1820
1821
1851
1871
1901
1931
1951
1971
1991
references

IMPORTANT FIGURES

Henry Turner Bailey (1865-1931)
A graduate from the Massachusetts Normal Art School in 1887, Henry Turner Bailey plays a key role in the development of industrial drawing in Massachusetts schools. In 1901, Bailey becomes editor of School Arts, a valuable and resourceful journal that continues its publication today.

John Dewey (1859-1952)
An American philosopher and education reformer, John Dewey continues to play a major role in the field of art education. At the core of Dewey's philosophy of education is the notion that rather than relying on rote memorization as a method of teaching, educators should place greater emphasis on broadening the child's intellect. According to Dewey, higher order thinking skills are developed when children are afforded the opportunity to engage in constructive learning that requires problem solving.

Arthur Wesley Dow (1857-1922)
A revolutionary figure in the arts, Arthur Wesley Dow plays an influential role in the history of art education. Returning home to Massachusetts from the Academie Julian in Paris, Dow becomes an assistant curator at the Museum of Fine Arts Boston through his studies of Japanese art with Ernest Fenollosa. Dow then teaches at the Pratt Institute beginning in 1895. Then from 1904 at the Teachers’ College, Columbia University until his death in 1922. His theories and practices make their way into the schools through his students.

William Heard Kilpatrick (1871-1965)
William Kilpatrick builds on theories from the Child Study Movement to become the leading theorist of the project method. He acknowledges the early work of Dewey. His method distinguishes four types of projects: making or producing, enjoying (listening, seeing, appreciating), problem solving, and skill gaining, all of which can involve the arts. (Wygant, 47)

Margaret Naumburg (1890-1983)
Considered the founder of art therapy in America, Margaret Naumburg blends progressive educational theories with psychology. In 1914, Naumburg opens the Children's School, later renamed the Walden School, and puts her theories into practice. She believes that the emotional development of a child should be fostered through creative self expression and self-motivated learning.