William Bartholomew (1822-1898)
An avid painter, William Bartholomew writes texts on the discipline of drawing and creates a system of instruction that leads students through a series of exercises, including geometric and landscape drawing. For a brief period of time, Bartholemew's method of instruction is used throughout Boston Schools.
Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852)
German educationalist Friedrich Froebel creates a lasting impact on American education. Best known for developing the “kindergarten system,” he believes that education should engage the creative mind of a child. Froebel creates environments that differ from the rigid classrooms of time. He develops special materials called “gifts” and prescribes activities known as “occupations”. He believes that through these gifts and occupations, students come to know and understand their world.
Elizabeth Peabody (1804-1894)
A writer, a leader in educational reform, and a key figure in the Transcendental Movement, Elizabeth Peabody plays a significant role in the history of art education. Influenced heavily by Froebel, Elizabeth Peabody devotes her life to the implementation of kindergarten as a pre-education to primary and secondary school. Peabody writes extensively on the subject of kindergarten integration and opens her first kindergarten in 1860.
Charles Callahan Perkins (1823-1886)
Educated at Harvard, Charles Callahan Perkins helps to establish the Boston Metropolitan Museum of Art, and is a key figure in the introduction of industrial drawing into Boston public schools.
John Dudley Philbrick (1818-1886)
Devoting his life to educational reform, John Dudley Philbrick serves as a principal, superintendent of Connecticut and Massachusetts schools, and editor of the Connecticut Common School Journal. He and Charles Callahan Perkins are responsible for introducing industrial drawing to Boston public schools.
Edward A. Sheldon (1823-1897)
Becoming the secretary of the Oswego Board of Education, Edward A. Sheldon establishes the Oswego Normal and Training school in 1861. Blending his own philosophic ideas with those of Froebel and Pestalozzi, Sheldon advocates a new method of instruction called object training. Behind the theory of object training is the notion that education should develop all the powers of the child. Through object training, teachers facilitate the development of the child's senses.