Preface
GrecoRoman
middleages
modernworld
prior1820
1821
1851
1871
1901
1931
1951
1971
1991
references

KEY DOCUMENTS

An Introduction to Linear Drawing:
While teaching at the Female Monitorial School, in 1825, William Bentley Fowle translates Louis Benjamin Francoeur’s text titled, An Introduction to Linear Drawing, a manual prepared for monitorial schools in Paris. The translated text becomes the first well-documented teaching of drawing in a public in the United States.

A Manual of Drawing and Writing for the Use of Schools and Families:
Written in 1834 by Rembrandt Peale, A Manual of Drawing and Writing for the Use of Schools and Families includes drawings of landscape motifs, facial features, perspective and shading techniques along with a section on handwriting. So admired is his manual that it continues to be published for thirty years.

Seventh Annual Report to the Massachusetts Board of Education:
In his Seventh Annual Report addressed to the Massachusetts Board of Education in 1844, Mann stresses drawing’s link to handwriting. Unsuccessful in adding drawing to schools in Massachusetts in his tenure, he does set the stage for the word “drawing” to be added to the list of grammar school studies in Boston during the year of 1848. Additionally, Mann is instrumental in the founding of the first Normal school in Lexington, Massachusetts, established specifically for public school teacher education.

Significant Journals and Reports:
Pestalozzian Education and Drawing Methods come to the United States via Prussian school reports, written by American travelers. The Common School Journal edited by Horace Mann reports Prussian drawing methods. Henry Barnard, editor of the Connecticut Common School Journal and Barnard’s American Journal of Education,also recounts drawing methods implemented by Pestalozzi (Efland, 1990). Calvin Stowe prepares the Report on Elementary Instruction in Europe for the Ohio legislator in 1838. It includes recommendations based on Prussian practices such as state-funded teacher preparation.